Timeline

 

 

Ironically, the last American battle of the Vietnam War was not in Vietnam nor was it against the North Vietnamese.

The Final Battle of the Vietnam War

America had been involved in Vietnam War since the late 1950s and the Vietnam War officially ended for America in 1975. The war for Americans was against the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong as they moved south and east from North Vietnam to capture South Vietnam trying to make it one country. On April 30, 1975, the North Vietnamese army entered Saigon and took over South Vietnam.

At the same time the Americans were fighting the Vietnam War, a civil war was occurring in neighboring Cambodia. A communist group known as the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot was trying to topple the government and take over Cambodia. On April 17, 1975, the Khmer Rouge overtook the capital city of Phnom Penh ending that war. Pol Pot declared it “Year Zero” [1].

The Khmer Rouge also began to take and secure islands in the Gulf of Thailand that Thailand and Vietnam also had claims on. But at this time, they were now in Cambodian hands.

How the Last Battle of the Vietnam War Began

On May 12, 1975, the US shipping vessel, the SS Mayaguez with a crew of 39, was on its way to the port at Sattahip, Thailand and was avoiding the tiny island of Poulo Wai, 60 miles from the Cambodia mainland and currently under the control of the Khmer Rouge, when a Khmer Rouge gunboat started racing towards the SS Mayaguez firing a rocket over the ship.

The captain of the SS Mayaguez, Charles T. Miller, ordered the radioman to get out an SOS right away. As the ship came to a stop, the first Cambodian Khmer Rouge troops came aboard armed with AK-47 rifles. At this same time, an Australian ship and an employee of Delta Exploration in Indonesia heard the mayday and relayed this to the US embassy.

President Ford Gets the News

The one thing President Ford did not want; was to appear weak to the US and the world, considering the evacuation and loss of Saigon and South Vietnam was just the previous month. And just 7 years earlier at the height of the Vietnam War in 1968; North Korea captured a US intelligence vessel, the USS Pueblo, while in international waters. That became a prolonged 11-month ordeal for President Johnson that President Ford did not want repeated.

At this point information was sketchy and no one knew for sure where the SS Mayaguez was. The first decision was to make sure the ship and crew did not reach the Cambodian mainland. P-3 Orions, F-4E, F-111A fighters, A-7D Corsairs and U-2 reconnaissance planes were ordered to find the SS Mayaguez. Several US naval ships were also ordered to the area.

The SS Mayaguez was found following Cambodian gunboats towards Kompong Som on the mainland. US jets fired at the gunboats and in front of the SS Mayaguez hoping to stop the progress. Instead of the mainland, the Cambodians had the ship drop anchor at the small island of Koh Tang. The Mayaguez crew was then taken on a captured Thai fishing vessel to Rong Sam Lem Island.

The Decision to Go to Battle

The decision was made to rescue the SS Mayaguez and the crew as soon as possible. US Marines would go over the side and retake the SS Mayaguez while US Marines would land on Koh Tang and capture any of the crew on the island, they didn’t know the entire Mayaguez crew was on Rong Sam Lem Island.

This was a case of hasty planning and faulty intelligence. The White House could talk directly to pilots and commanders and find out what was going on and give orders. While of course commanders at the battle could also give orders and make plans. There were more people managing the battle than fighting in the battle.

The Last Battle of the Vietnam War

On May 15, US helicopters loaded with the marines took off from bases 200 miles to the north in Thailand and headed for Koh Tang Island. Poor planning had the helicopters showing up at Koh Tang after sunrise. Poor intelligence believed the island was defended by only a few dozen, poorly armed Khmer Rouge.

The helicopters arrived at the island on the west and the east beaches, while trying to drop the marines off, they came under heavy fire from the Khmer Rouge. The helicopters were being hit and continually had to abort, three crashing into the water and others trying to make it back to Thailand. Fourteen Americans died in these helicopter crashes, 10 Marines, 2 Navy corpsmen and 2 Air Force crewmen.

Aerial view of crashed helicopters on east beach.          View of the west and east beaches of Koh Tang Island.

A group of marines were landed at the east beach while more marines landed on the west beach of Koh Tang Island and were met with far more resistance than was planned for. At the same time, the USS Holt came along side the SS Mayaguez and US Marines boarded and took control of the ship.

The battle on Koh Tang raged on all day, on the islands west end, a three-man machine gun crew was set up to protect the north flank. At this time the Khmer Rouge, for no clear reason, decided to release the crew of the SS Mayaguez. The crew and the crew of the captured Thai fishing vessel left and later met up with the USS Wilson.

Aerial view of the USS Holt (right) alongside the Mayaguez. Aerial view of two Cambodian gunships next to Mayaguez. US Marines board the SS Mayaguez.

Towards sunset, there had to be a decision, stay and fight all night or pull out. The White House made the decision to pull out all troops. This was much easier said than done. While it became dark, the helicopters were having even more trouble landing on the beaches to pick up the marines than they did dropping them off. One helicopter at a time, landed, picked up Marines, took off and another would try to land. In the darkness and under heavy fire, it was becoming more chaotic.

As marines were loading onto each helicopter to leave, that left fewer Marines on the ground and the perimeter had to be tightened. The last helicopter, Knife-51, landed and picked up the remaining Marines. The beach was looked over for any remaining Marines and for any outgoing tracers and none was seen. At 8:10 PM, Knife-51 took off. But there were rumors that three marines had been left on the island.

A quick count was made and it was found that three marines were unaccounted for, the three-man machine gun crew that was set up to protect the north flank. The next morning, the USS Wilson returned and circled Koh Tang for three hours and found no signs of anymore fighting or marines.

The final toll was 18 Americans killed and 50 wounded. Those 18 names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall are those of the Americans killed in this last battle of the Vietnam War, including the three marines inadvertently left on the island, Lance Corporal Joseph N. Hargrove, PFC Gary L. Hall and Private Danny G. Marshall [2].

Officially, the last American battle of the Vietnam War was in Cambodia and against the Khmer Rouge and is believed to be the only time Americans battled the Khmer Rouge.

© 2010 Sam Montana

Resources and further reading on these subjects:

[1] Immediately following the takeover of Cambodia, the new Khmer Rouge government evacuated every Cambodian city, including the capital of Phnom Penh, and forced them into the countryside. This led to 1.7 million Cambodians being executed or dying of starvation and has been called the Killing Fields and the Cambodian Holocaust.

[2] Another 23 Americans were killed in Thailand when their helicopter crashed in preparation.

 

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=htBkJKj-Mt0 

 

Knife 13 (68-10933) 

P - 1Lt Jimmy Kays 

CP - 1Lt Larry Froehlich 

FE - TSgt George McMullen

CE - Sgt Paul Raber

FE - Sgt Robert P. Weldon

 

 

 

Knife 21 (68-10926)

P - Lt Col John Denham

CP - 1Lt Karl Poulsen

FE - SSgt Woody Rumbaugh

FE - TSgt Bob Boissonnault

Lt. James McDaniel

SSgt. Serefino Bernal

PFC Allen Bailey

PFC Mark Dick

LCpl Cliff Henderson

LCpl Gabe Herrera

LCpl Scott Kresin

Cpl Gilbert Lutz

LCpl Fred Morris

LCpl Carl Odom

LCpl Ashton Loney

 

Knife 22 (68-10928) 

P - Capt Terry Ohlemeier

CP - 2Lt Dave Greer

FE - SSgt Mike Wilson

FE - Sgt Norman Paul

Capt. James Davis

GySgt. Lester McNemar

PFC Pat Flannigan

PFC Terry Lambert

PFC Walter Mason

Sgt. Nick Rivera

 

Knife 23 (70-1627)  East Beach

P - 1Lt John Schramm

CP - 1Lt John Lucas

FE - SSgt Ron Gross

FE - A1C Eduardo Arrieta

Cameraman - SSgt James Barschow

Lt. Mike Cicere

LCpl Larry Barnett

PFC Mike Hennen

PFC Bob Dochniak

LCpl William Akerly

PFC Antonio Brinson

PFC Barry Crisp

PFC Mike Gaddes

LCpl Danny Valentine

LCpl Allen Wyatt

Cpl Louis Ybarra 

     

 

Knife 31(68-10925)

P - Maj Howard Corson

CP - 2Lt Rich Van de Geer 

FE - SSgt Jon Harston 

FE - SSgt Randy Hoffmaster

LCpl Tim Trebil

LCpl Mike Apodaca

Sgt Victor Salinas

SSgt Robert Pruitt

PFC Daniel Benedett

PFC Ricky Maxwell

LCpl Andy Garcia

PFC Antonio Sandoval

PFC Kelton Turner

PVT Richard Rivenburg

LCpl Gregory Copenhaver

PFC Lynn Blessing

PFC James Jacques

HM1 Ronald Manning

HM Bernard Gause Jr.

PFC Walter Boyd

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knife 32(68-10932)

P - 1Lt Mike Lackey

CP - 2Lt Calvin Wachs

FE - TSgt Mike Olsen

FE - SSgt Nick Morales

LCpl Steven Berger

Cpl Tex Duke

LCpl Dave Fowler

LCpl Larry Yerg

 

Knife 51(68-10927)

P - 1Lt Dick Brims

CP - 2Lt Dennis Danielson

FE - SSgt Marion Riley

FE - A1C Phillip Pack,

PJ - TSgt Wayne Fisk

PJ - Sgt Ronald Cooper

LCpl Don Simpson

 

 

Knife 52/70-1626

P - 1Lt Bob Rakitis

CP - 2Lt Dave Lykens

FE - SSgt Donald McDowell

FE - TSgt William Dunbar 

                                        

Nail Crews

Nail 68– Major Bob “Underdog” Undorf

Nail 47 – Capt Rick Roehrkasse

Nail 69 – Capt Greg “Growth” Wilson

Nail 51 – 1Lt Will Carroll

 

 

Jolly Green 11 (68-10364)

P - 1Lt Don Backlund 

CP - 1Lt Gary Weikel

FE - SSgt Harry Cash

PJ - MSgt John Eldridge

PJ - SSgt Stu Stanaland

PJ - A1C Brad Marx  

AP - 1Lt Ron Rand –  BGen, USAF (Ret)

SSgt. Calrk Hale

 

Jolly Green 12 (69-5793) (AM)

P - Capt Paul Jacobs

CP - Capt Marty Nickerson

FE - SSgt Kaiser

PJ - MSgt Dave Gray

PJ - Sgt Cook

 

Jolly Green 12 (69-5793) (PM)

P - Capt Barry Walls

CP - 2Lt Comer – MGen, USAF (Ret)

FE - SSgt Jesse DeJesus 

PJ - TSgt Dave Patterson

PJ - A1C Rheinheardt

Lt. James W. Davis

 

Jolly Green 13(69-5794)

P - 1Lt Chuck Greer

CP - 1Lt Charlie Brown

FE - SSgt King

PJ - SSgt Mark Froehlich

PJ - Sgt Ron Lundrigan

PJ - Sgt Steve Lemminn

 

Jolly Green 41(69-795)

P - 1Lt Tom Cooper

CP - 1Lt Dave Keith

FE - TSgt Little

FE - SSgt Jeff Donovan

PJ - Sgt Tom Beranek

PJ - A1C John Ferris

PFC Rodney Gately 

Pvt Jeff Kern

PFC Jeff Larner 

LCpl Billy McGill  

PFC Steve Simoni  

PFC Roger Skinner

PFC Dennis Taylor  

SSgt. FoFo Tuitele 

Lt. Richard Zales   

 

Jolly Green 42(69-5785)

P - 1Lt Phil Pacini

CP - Capt Bob Dube

FE - TSgt Straughn, Jr.

FE - SSgt Jablonski

PJ - Sgt Mike Brown

PJ - A1C Dunham II

LtCol. Randall Austin

Lt. Dan Hoffman

Lt. Dick Keith

PFC Joseph Mainella

         Gregg McGinnis

Sgt. Ricardo Rodriguez

 

Jolly Green 43(69-5792)

P - Capt Wayne Purser

CP - 1Lt Bob Gradle

FE - TSgt Bill Willingham

PJ - TSgt PeteHarding

PJ - Sgt Tom Bateson

PJ - A1C McKiver

        Ricky Ackerman

LCpl Jerry Borowski

LCpl Larry Branson

          Gordon Buchan

Capt. Barry Cassidy

SSgt. Dan Darden

PFC Melton Dunscombe

Maj. John Hendricks

LCpl Bryan Marino

LCpl Ed Mills

PFC George Wagers

PFC Hollice Wiggins

 

Jolly Green 44(69-5784)

P - 1Lt Bob Blough

CP - 1Lt Hank Mason

FE - SSgt Bob Bounds

FE - SSgt Jim Howell

PJ - Sgt Bruce Daly

PJ - A1C Dave Ash

 

Jolly Green (69-5784)(69-5786) FCF Crew

P - Major Joe Guilmartin

CP - Lt Col Joe McMonigle

FE - SSgt Woody Freeman